Vienna Iii Agreement Cyprus
94.The main points of the future Constitution of Cyprus were in the basic structure agreed in Zurich, supplemented by the London conference in 1959. (68) As noted above, the conference also adopted “agreed measures”, which include the provision that a Joint Commission in Cyprus will finalise a draft Constitution with these articles and the relevant provisions of the other agreements reached in Zurich and London. The joint committee should be made up of a representative from each of the parties to the London Agreement (with the exception of the United Kingdom). It took the Joint Commission 14 months to negotiate the draft Constitution and made some changes to the agreements agreed at the London conference. The project was signed on April 6, 1960 in Nicosia. 84.It also argued that the guarantee contract was null and void because Article IV, by authorizing the unilateral use of force to maintain the status quo in Cyprus, is at odds with a rule of ius cogens (an imperative standard of general international law), i.e. a standard accepted and recognized by the international community as a whole as a principle to which no exceptions are permitted. In this regard, it should be noted that there are significant differences of opinion within the international community on the standards that fall specifically into this category. It must be recognized, however, that the prohibition of the use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of a state is a rule that falls definitively into this category.
(50) Both sides stated that Nicosia International Airport, which was repaired by the United Nations as part of the first round agreement, could initially be used by the United Nations to meet its needs. 1. Turkish Cypriots currently in the south of the island will, if they wish, have the opportunity to travel north with their property under an organised programme and with the support of the United Nations Force. 2.M. Denktash stated, and it was agreed that Greek Cypriots could currently remain free in the north of the island and that they would receive all the assistance necessary to lead a normal life, including structures of education and exercise of their religion, as well as medical care provided by their own doctors and freedom of movement in the North. 3. Greek Cypriots who are currently in the North and who, at their own request and without any pressure, want to settle in the South, will be allowed to do so. 4. UNFICYP will have free and normal access to Greek Cypriot villages and northern residential areas. (5) As part of the implementation of the aforementioned agreement, priority is given to family reunification, which may include the transfer to the north of a number of Greek Cypriots currently located in the south. EOKA-B, founded in 1971, continued EOKA`s terrorist activities and Enosis`s demands. The conflict escalated on 15 July 1974, when the Cypriot National Guard, under the command of the officers of the Greek army, supplanted Makario and installed the pro-Enosis Nikos Sampson.
Five days later, a force of 6,000 Turkish troops armed with tanks landed on the northern coast of Cyprus, supposedly to restore civilian rule in accordance with a 1960 agreement authorizing Turkish, Greek or British military interventions in the event of a threat to the democratic order of the island. Violent fighting broke out between the Turkish army and the Cypriot National Guard, and many areas of the island reported inter-communal conflicts.